Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino was born in Montepulciano, Italy, on the 4th of October 1542. He joined the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, and was later made Cardinal and Archbishop of Capua. He was famous throughout Europe as a teacher, preacher, theologian and as a strenuous defender of the faith against Protestantism. His numerous writings include works of devotion, instruction and defense against scientific-based contradictions to the faith. Saint Robert Bellarmine was canonized in 1930 and was declared a Doctor of the Universal Church in 1931.